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Câncer De Mama: Informação Pode Salvar Vidas

Câncer de mama: informação pode salvar vidas

Vermelhidão, caroços, inchaço, pele endurecida, coceira e saída de líquido vermelho ou transparente do bico dos seios. Se você apresentar algum desses sintomas, deve procurar um médico, pois você pode estar com câncer de mama. 

No Brasil, as mulheres devem enfrentar, em 2017, 57.960 casos novos de câncer de mama, de acordo com estimativa do Instituto Nacional do Câncer (Inca). Este tipo de câncer é o mais comum entre as mulheres no mundo.

FATORES DE RISCO

Além do autoexame, é importante conhecer os fatores de risco da doença. Diversos fatores estão relacionados ao aumento do risco, tais como: idade, fatores endócrinos/história reprodutiva, fatores comportamentais/ambientais e genéticos/hereditários.

Fatores endócrinos ou relativos à história reprodutiva – Referem-se ao estímulo do hormônio estrogênio produzido pelo próprio organismo ou consumido por meio do uso continuado de substâncias com esse hormônio. Esses fatores incluem: história de menarca precoce (idade da primeira menstruação menor que 12 anos); menopausa tardia (após os 55 anos); primeira gravidez após os 30 anos; nuliparidade (não ter tido filhos); e uso de contraceptivos orais e de terapia de reposição hormonal pós-menopausa, especialmente se por tempo prolongado.

Fatores relacionados a comportamentos ou ao ambiente – Incluem ingestão de bebida alcoólica, sobrepeso e obesidade após a menopausa e exposição à radiação ionizante (tipo de radiação presente na radioterapia e em exames de imagem como raios X, mamografia e tomografia computadorizada). O tabagismo é um fator que vem sendo estudado ao longo dos anos, com resultados contraditórios quanto ao aumento do risco de câncer de mama. Atualmente há alguma evidência de que ele aumenta também o risco desse tipo de câncer.

Fatores genéticos/hereditários – Estão relacionados à presença de mutações em determinados genes transmitidos na família, especialmente BRCA1 e BRCA2. Mulheres com histórico de casos de câncer de mama em familiares consanguíneos, sobretudo em idade jovem; de câncer de ovário ou de câncer de mama em homem, podem ter predisposição genética e são consideradas de risco elevado para a doença. Contudo, estudos comprovam que apenas 5% a 10% de casos têm de fato na sua base uma composição genética familiar.

PREVENÇÃO É O CAMINHO

Existem vários tipos de câncer de mama. Parte deles evolui de forma rápida. A maioria dos casos é acompanhado por perspectivas otimistas, se tratados precocemente.

Estima-se que por meio da alimentação, nutrição e atividade física é possível reduzir em até 28% o risco de a mulher desenvolver câncer de mama. Controlar o peso corporal e evitar a obesidade, por meio da alimentação saudável e da prática regular de exercícios físicos, e evitar o consumo de bebidas alcoólicas são recomendações básicas para prevenir o câncer de mama. A amamentação também é considerada um fator protetor. Já a terapia de reposição hormonal (TRH), quando estritamente indicada, deve ser feita sob rigoroso controle médico e pelo mínimo de tempo necessário.

Mas, se estas medidas ajudam a reduzir as chances de desenvolver a doença, ainda não podem ser consideradas como preventivas de fato. Infelizmente, o câncer de mama ainda não pode ser prevenido, mas sim diagnosticado o mais cedo possível. Para isto, recomenda-se que as mulheres conheçam seu corpo desde o crescimento das mamas na adolescência.

O auto-exame das mamas, hoje chamado de auto-cuidado, pode ser feito pelo menos uma vez ao mês, preferencialmente no mesmo dia do mês para que as mulheres se familiarizem com suas mamas.

Após os 40 anos, a mamografia começa a ser um exame importante para a detecção da doença e recomenda-se que seja feito pelo menos uma vez por ano a partir daí. Todas as mulheres deveriam procurar um mastologista para acompanhamento e exame anual durante sua vida, mas principalmente a partir dos 40 anos.

Aproveite o Outubro Rosa para ir ao médico. Compartilhe com suas amigas, esposa, filhas. Ajude a salvar vidas.

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